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管风琴的FAQ

本文主要翻译自APOBA(Associated Pipe Organ Builders of America,美国管风琴建造联合会)的FAQ栏目,再加上一些我知道的东西,形成一个扫盲贴。主要是从建造者或购买者角度来说。

入坑

 喜欢上管风琴这个乐器是从看了电影《星际穿越》开始的。影片的主旋律就是管风琴演奏的,在玉米地的场景里,这段旋律在YouTube有,以及网易云音乐。低音的音场让在看着IMAX的我身体都颤动起来了。

 后来就产生了对管风琴的好奇。当然,那差不多是两年前的事了。这篇文章主要写写一些中级入坑内容,大概是百度百科里没有的。

 我比较少翻译东西,一般以干货为主。

APOBA的FAQ

 本文的主题,翻译自APOBA的FAQ一栏。由于是管风琴建造者协会,这里关心的问题并不是「管风琴是什么」,「管风琴的历史」,「管风琴的意义」等等,而是建造管风琴中的常见问题。

建一台管风琴需要多少钱?

How much does a pipe organ cost?

The cost of a pipe organ can be as low as $30,000.00 for a used instrument relocated to a new home, to millions of dollars for a new instrument built for a major church or concert hall. The range of cost for a pipe organ for a small to medium sized church is in the area of $200,000.00 – 850,000.00.

 一台管风琴的价格变动范围很大,少到只需要3万美元,用于将二手管风琴移置新家,多则数百万美元,建造用于给大教堂或者音乐厅的管风琴。通常中小型教堂的管风琴开销在20万美元到85万美元之间。

管风琴的寿命多长?

How long will a pipe organ last?

The primary mechanical and sound producing components of a pipe organ are wood and leather for the frame and chests and casework, and zinc, lead and tin for the pipes. The wood and metal parts will last for centuries. The leather parts need to be replaced approximately every 60 years. This leather replacement is always a fraction of the original cost of the instrument.

 管风琴的主要机械和发生机构由木头构成;框架、箱体和外部装饰由以皮革为主;管子则是锌、铅和锡做成。木头和金属部分可以维持数个世纪,而皮各部分需要大约60年更新一次。皮革保养和更换也是管风琴初建时费用的一部分。

我的教堂需要多大的管风琴?

What size pipe organ do I need for my church?

The size of a pipe organ is always described in terms of stops. A stop is one set of pipes that goes from the bottom of the keyboard to the top of the keyboard. While there is no hard and fast rule regarding size of pipe organs, a good method for determining an appropriate range of size for your church is 5 – 10 stops for every 100 people of seating capacity. If your church seats 100 then you should consider an organ of 5 – 10 stops. If your church seats 500, then you can consider an organ of 25 – 50 stops.

 管风琴的大小通常用术语「级(Stops)」来衡量。一级是一组从键盘底部(低音)到键盘顶部(高音)的琴管。管风琴的大小没有硬性规定,但是我们可以根据「5-10级供100座教堂」的经验来确定。比如一座500个座位的教堂可以考虑25到50级的管风琴。

 注:「级」可能翻译不是很准确,也可能叫「档」,这个「Stop」是用来控制一组琴管是否通气的,默认情况是一个Stop对应一种音色;四个八度的键盘是49个键,也就是49根管子——也就是说4个Stops是196根管子。所以可想而知50级的结构有多复杂。教堂越大,需要更宽广的音域、音色种类和响度范围来达到不同的效果。

管风琴有多重?

How much does an organ weigh?

The weight of a pipe organ is dependent on its size, how many stop it has. A good rule of thumb for determining weight is 750 lbs per stop.

 管风琴的重量由个头来决定,以及级数的多少。常用的经验是一级750磅重(约340千克,3个Stops就上吨了)。

管风琴的调音和维护花费如何?

How much does it cost to tune and maintain a pipe organ?

As a general rule of thumb, a pipe organ is tuned twice a year, either at the change of seasons from hot to cold, and cold to hot, or before Easter and before Christmas. The cost of this biannual tuning will vary depending on the size of the pipe organ and area in which the pipe organ is located. In general, tuning and maintenance will require roughly one hour for every six stop in the organ. Hourly rates will vary from $85.00 per hour to $125.00 per hour.

 经验之谈是,管风琴一年要调两次音,主要是由于季节变化导致的热胀冷缩等,通常时间点是复活节和圣诞节之前(为宗教节日的到来做准备)。 这个一年两次的调音花费也取决于管风琴的大小和所在地区。通常来说,一个六级管风琴调音和维护大约每次需要一个小时。每小时薪资大约85到125美元不等。

如何计划建造一台管风琴?

How do you begin an organ project?

The first step in any organ project is forming an organ committee. A pipe organ is a significant addition to any church. The organ should be purchased not only for the organist, but because of the way in which it will enhance the worship life of the church. The committee should be a fairly diverse group which reflects the character of the church membership. Once the committee is formed, they need to begin the process of self-education. A pipe organ is a very diverse and complex musical instrument. Because of its diversity and complexity, education is essential for the committee to make an informed decision. Part of this education should include traveling to hear different pipe organs, and talking to different pipe organ builders. Following these visits and interviews it is customary for the committee to choose limited number of builders to present proposals to the committee. These proposals are then evaluated and a single builder chosen to proceed with the project.

 (对于教堂来说)第一步都是组成一个管风琴委员会,因为管风琴对教堂来说是一项很大的投资。管风琴项目不但是管风琴本身,也包括对管风琴家的聘请等等,这对礼拜活动的效果有很强的促进作用。委员会应当保证多样性,能够代表教堂中的不同成员。

 一旦委员会成立,下一步就是委员会内部的自我学习。管风琴是一种很多样且复杂的乐器,对它的足够了解才能保证做出可靠的决定。学习的过程包括前往不同的管风琴所在地去聆听不同的声音,也要和不同的管风琴建造者多沟通交流。在这个过程中选择靠谱的建造公司,让他们提交自己的方案。最后选定其中一家作为管风琴的「施工单位」。

如何给管风琴付钱?

How do you pay for a pipe organ?

Fundraising for a pipe organ project is different for every church or other institution. In some instances, every member of a congregation gives what they can. In others, the entire cost of the project is given by one person. A third, fairly common approach is to raise one third to one half of the project cost from large donors before presenting the project to the congregation for further fundraising.

 管风琴项目集资过程对每个教堂或者组织都是不一样的,在一些案例中,每个教堂成员都尽自己的一份力出钱;另一些案例中,全部费用都由某一个人承担;还有的案例(最为常见)是三分之一至一半的钱来自主要捐助者,剩下的由普通成员承担。

(一个无聊的问题。)

管风琴的管是如何工作的?

How are the pipes in a pipe organ played?

There are three different systems for playing the pipes in a pipe organ. Each system is also known as type of ‘key action’. The first key action is mechanical action, also known as tracker action. In this system, there is a direct mechanical connection between the keys at the console (the place where the organist sits) and the valve for each note. The second is electropneumatic. In this key action there is an electrical connection between the keys at the console and the valves for each note. The valves for each note are a combination of small electrical magnet and a series of two pneumatic valves, thus the name, electro pneumatic. Last is direct electro-mechanical. In the electro-mechanical action there is an electrical connection between the keys at the console and a single electrical valve under each pipe. It is not uncommon for these key actions to be used in combination with each other.

 管风琴的管会有三种不同的工作体系,每一种体系都被称为一种「键控制」。

 第一种是机械控制,也叫追踪控制,这里面每一个控制台(管风琴家坐的地方)键盘按键和音符的阀门之间都有直接的机械连接。

 第二种是电动气动控制系统,每一个控制台按键,阀门和音符之间是电子信号连接。每个音符的阀门是小型电磁开关和一组气动阀门的组合。

 第三种是直接电动机械键控制系统。这种系统中,控制台按键和每根管的电子阀门(机械部分)是电信号连接。

 以上三种控制方式的混合使用也不是不常见。

 注:第一种是最古老的方式,后面两种是现代一点的方式。

管风琴内部有多少种管?

What are the different kinds of pipes in a pipe organ?

The pipes in a pipe organ are designed and labeled by two different primary factors. First is its pitch. The different stops in a pipe organ always have a number in front of them. This number refers to the speaking length of the stop. If the number is 8’, then the stop speaks the same pitch as you will hear on a piano. If the number is 16’ then the stop will speak the pitch one octave lower than the pitch on a piano. If it says 4’, it will speak the pitch one octave above the same pitch on the piano. And so on and so forth all the way down to 64’, and all the way up to 2 2/3’, 2’. 1,3/5’, 1 1/3’, 1’ and beyond.

Second is timber or color of sound. Directly following the pitch number will be a name. The name refers to the color of sound for the particular stop. In general, the colors of sound fall into two different categories. They are flue pipes and reed pipes. Flue pipes make their sound in the same way as a recorder or penny whistle. The pressurized air goes in one end of the pipe (the foot), is channeled through a small slot (the windway), and strikes a thin lip a certain distance above the small slot (the upper lip). This process starts the column of air in the body of the pipe vibrating at its given speed and producing its given pitch. Flue pips are generally subdivided into two groups, those in which the bodies are open on top (Principals and Strings), and those which are stopped on top (Flutes).

Reed pipes make their sound in the same way as a clarinet or saxophone. The pressurized air goes in the bottom of the pipe (the boot). It passes between a brass reed and brass shallot (similar to the mouthpiece and reed on a clarinet). This process starts the column of air in the resonator of the pipe vibrating at its given speed and producing its given pitch. Reed pipes are generally subdivided into two groups, those with conical resonators (Trumpet and Oboe type stops) and cylindrical resonators (Cromorne and Clarinet type stops).

 管子有两种设计和标记的主要因素。第一种是其音高。不同管风琴的级前面会有不同的数字。数字标记着该级的音的高度。数字「8’」代表和钢琴一样的音高;数字「16’」会比钢琴低一个八度;「4’」则是高一个八度。这个数字序列往低音走会一直低到「64’」,往高音方向则有2 2/3’,2’,1 3/5’,1 1/3’,1’等等。

 第二种是声音的「特质」或者「颜色」(——其实就是音色)。命名会反映出该级的音色。通常来说会有两大类,一种叫唇管,另一种是簧管。唇管的发生原理类似于八孔直笛或六孔哨笛。增压后的空气从管子的一侧(底部)进入,通过一个小的隔间,击打一片薄的唇边,唇边距离小隔间的距离不一样,管体就会在不同的频率下振动,发出不同的音高。唇管又分为两个子类,一种是顶部开口的(类似低音小号与弦乐器),另一种是顶部封口的(类似长笛)。

 簧管发声原理类似于单簧管(竖笛)或萨克斯。压缩后的空气从底部(靴部)进入管道,通过黄铜簧片和黄铜茎管(可以搜图片,类似于单簧管的吹口和簧管)。这个过程中,管子的共振体里的空气在不同的频率下振动,于是发出了不同的音高。簧管也有两种分类,一种是圆锥形的共振器(像喇叭和双簧管),另一种是圆柱形共振器(类似于克雷蒙和单簧管)。

如何卖掉一台管风琴?

How do I sell my pipe organ?

Occasionally, a church needs to sell their organ. Our initial advice: if you have the space, keep the organ. Even if you don’t have immediate plans to use, restore or maintain the organ, someday, your congregation may want the pipe organ returned. It’s ability to inspire cannot be replaced by electronically produced sounds through speakers, nor will guitars and drums have a lasting place in traditional church worship. Further, the escalating costs of manufacturing a new organ will play a role in future decisions; good stewardship dictates that the investment made by those who have preceded you be carefully weighed.

That said, your first challenge will be to place a value on the instrument. This is often difficult given the wide range of manufacturers, sizes, tonal designs, locations (installation complexity) and intricacy of the action. You will need to understand the differences between market values, insurance (replacement) values and depreciated values. You will need to understand the perspective of the purchaser who will need to consider the associated costs involved with redesigning, reconfiguring, revoicing an organ that was custom designed for your congregation, your physical space and your acoustic. In short, you will need an organbuilder for step one. Hopefully your current service provider can help; certainly, an APOBA member can help.

Step 2: Consider the avenues available to advertising and selling the organ. We suggest using the Web to contact the Church Organ Trader. These folks advertise any and all things related to pipe organs. We also suggest using classified ads in both The American Organist and Diapason magazines; also accessible on the web.

Step 3: Depending on the conditions of the present organ’s installation, you may wish to consider hiring an insured professional to remove the organ in order to protect the building and its furnishings, as well as anyone who might be injured in the process. Please feel free to include a summary of your situation in the Message section on the APOBA Contact page and check with your local APOBA builder for advice. There may be a small consultation fee involved, but it is imperative that an organ be properly removed for preservation. Occasionally an organ is removed in exchange for the cost of removal; this ensures its preservation and prevents the harmful portions of the organ (lead and tin) from being improperly disposed.

 在某些时候教堂需要卖掉里面的管风琴。我们初步的建议是,如果教堂里有空间,那就不要卖掉它。即使没有近期使用的想法也要保留并维护好管风琴,有一天大伙做礼拜的时候还会希望管风琴回来的。管风琴启示教众的功能是喇叭产生的电子音效不能比肩的。那些传统教堂礼拜里的吉他和鼓也不行。更进一步说,日渐上涨的管风琴建造费用会让未来做买新琴的决定更加纠结。好的管理层通常都会仔细斟酌之前人们的投资。

 也就是说,你面临的第一重困难是给管风琴定个合适的价值(不是价格)。管风琴的制造者,大小,发音设计,地点(安装难度)以及键操作难度变化范围很广,给定价造成很大难度。而且你必须很清楚了解市场价值、保险值、折余价值这三者的区别。你还要了解购买者的意向,他们可能需要对管风琴进行重新设计、配置和调音,以和你们的礼拜情况、物理空间和声学特性相匹配。总而言之,这一步你需要一家管风琴建造公司。最好你现在的管风琴提供商会帮忙,不然的话考虑APOBA的成员公司也是不错的选择。

 第二步:考虑为卖管风琴做广告的财政预算。我们建议上网联系教堂管风琴中介机构。他们经营各种和管风琴有关的买卖。我们还建议在《美国管风琴家》和《调音》杂志上发布分类广告。网络广告当然也可以。

 第三步:根据目前管风琴的安装状况,你可能需要雇一位有担保的专家来保证不影响建筑及其装修的前提下拆卸管风琴,也要保证施工中的人身安全。可以把管风琴状况报告提交一份给APOBA,这可能要一点咨询费,但是对管风琴本身好处是大大滴。甚至有的时候管风琴的移除都要用来抵消移除的成本,这也是为了保证保藏的需要,同时避免环境有害的物质扩散,如铅和锡等(注:为了保证环境和管风琴本身的良好,需要一些移除费和保护费,如果这个超过了管风琴本身的价值,卖掉管风琴可能并没有收益,我猜的)。

多说几句

 可以看到,管风琴似乎出现的地点都是以教堂为主,而且都有很浓厚的宗教色彩,尤其是基督教。但是管风琴在很多音乐厅也是可以见到的(有可能是专门用来演奏宗教曲目)。我本身是不信宗教的,只是对其音乐效果感到震撼,所以还在想以后有没有办法给家里搞一台小型的,嗯哼,反正二手的价格也没有上面说的那么夸张。再给力一点的话,我可能还会自己做一台,啊哈。

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